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+ HIDRAW - Raw Access to USB and Bluetooth Human Interface Devices
+ ==================================================================
+The hidraw driver provides a raw interface to USB and Bluetooth Human
+Interface Devices (HIDs). It differs from hiddev in that reports sent and
+received are not parsed by the HID parser, but are sent to and received from
+the device unmodified.
+Hidraw should be used if the userspace application knows exactly how to
+communicate with the hardware device, and is able to construct the HID
+reports manually. This is often the case when making userspace drivers for
+custom HID devices.
+Hidraw is also useful for communicating with non-conformant HID devices
+which send and receive data in a way that is inconsistent with their report
+descriptors. Because hiddev parses reports which are sent and received
+through it, checking them against the device's report descriptor, such
+communication with these non-conformant devices is impossible using hiddev.
+Hidraw is the only alternative, short of writing a custom kernel driver, for
+these non-conformant devices.
+A benefit of hidraw is that its use by userspace applications is independent
+of the underlying hardware type. Currently, Hidraw is implemented for USB
+and Bluetooth. In the future, as new hardware bus types are developed which
+use the HID specification, hidraw will be expanded to add support for these
+new bus types.
+Hidraw uses a dynamic major number, meaning that udev should be relied on to
+create hidraw device nodes. Udev will typically create the device nodes
+directly under /dev (eg: /dev/hidraw0). As this location is distribution-
+and udev rule-dependent, applications should use libudev to locate hidraw
+devices attached to the system. There is a tutorial on libudev with a
+working example at:
+read() will read a queued report received from the HID device. On USB
+devices, the reports read using read() are the reports sent from the device
+on the INTERRUPT IN endpoint. By default, read() will block until there is
+a report available to be read. read() can be made non-blocking, by passing
+the O_NONBLOCK flag to open(), or by setting the O_NONBLOCK flag using
+On a device which uses numbered reports, the first byte of the returned data
+will be the report number; the report data follows, beginning in the second
+byte. For devices which do not use numbered reports, the report data
+will begin at the first byte.
+The write() function will write a report to the device. For USB devices, if
+the device has an INTERRUPT OUT endpoint, the report will be sent on that
+endpoint. If it does not, the report will be sent over the control endpoint,
+using a SET_REPORT transfer.
+The first byte of the buffer passed to write() should be set to the report
+number. If the device does not use numbered reports, the first byte should
+be set to 0. The report data itself should begin at the second byte.
+Hidraw supports the following ioctls:
+HIDIOCGRDESCSIZE: Get Report Descriptor Size
+This ioctl will get the size of the device's report descriptor.
+HIDIOCGRDESC: Get Report Descriptor
+This ioctl returns the device's report descriptor using a
+hidraw_report_descriptor struct. Make sure to set the size field of the
+hidraw_report_descriptor struct to the size returned from HIDIOCGRDESCSIZE.
+This ioctl will return a hidraw_devinfo struct containing the bus type, the
+vendor ID (VID), and product ID (PID) of the device. The bus type can be one
+which are defined in linux/input.h.
+HIDIOCGRAWNAME(len): Get Raw Name
+This ioctl returns a string containing the vendor and product strings of
+the device. The returned string is Unicode, UTF-8 encoded.
+HIDIOCGRAWPHYS(len): Get Physical Address
+This ioctl returns a string representing the physical address of the device.
+For USB devices, the string contains the physical path to the device (the
+USB controller, hubs, ports, etc). For Bluetooth devices, the string
+contains the hardware (MAC) address of the device.
+HIDIOCSFEATURE(len): Send a Feature Report
+This ioctl will send a feature report to the device. Per the HID
+specification, feature reports are always sent using the control endpoint.
+Set the first byte of the supplied buffer to the report number. For devices
+which do not use numbered reports, set the first byte to 0. The report data
+begins in the second byte. Make sure to set len accordingly, to one more
+than the length of the report (to account for the report number).
+HIDIOCGFEATURE(len): Get a Feature Report
+This ioctl will request a feature report from the device using the control
+endpoint. The first byte of the supplied buffer should be set to the report
+number of the requested report. For devices which do not use numbered
+reports, set the first byte to 0. The report will be returned starting at
+the first byte of the buffer (ie: the report number is not returned).
+In samples/, find hid-example.c, which shows examples of read(), write(),
+and all the ioctls for hidraw. The code may be used by anyone for any
+purpose, and can serve as a starting point for developing applications using
+Document by:
+ Alan Ott <>, Signal 11 Software